Ages: 4-0 through 24-11
Testing Time: 40 minutes
The Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing
(CTOPP) was published in 1999 to meet the need for an assessment of
reading-related phonological processing skills. Since its initial
publication, the CTOPP has been popular with professionals in psychology
and education. It has been used in many studies of reading and
phonological processing in both typical and clinical populations. The
extent of its widespread adoption and usage is evident from the results
of a recent search of the PsychInfo database for research studies using
the terms Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing or CTOPP. The query returned 4,287 results.
Characteristics of the CTOPP-2All
new normative data were collected in 2008 and 2009. The test was normed
on 1,900 individuals ranging in age from 6 through 24 years. The
demographic characteristics of the sample conform to those of the
population reported in the Statistical Abstract of the United States,
and are, therefore, representative of the U.S. population.The floor
effects present in the 5- and 6-year-old version of the first edition
have been eliminated by the addition of easier items and the ceilings
were extended by the addition of more difficult items. The results of
the item additions were so successful that it now is appropriate to
administer the CTOPP-2 to 4-year-olds. The lower version of the CTOPP-2
now covers the 4- to 6-year-old range. A new phonological awareness
subtest called Phoneme Isolation was added.The model of phonological
processing abilities was clarified. Confirmatory factor analyses were
carried out and justified the presence of rapid naming subtests on a
test of phonological processing. The model for 4- to 6-year-old range
was revised by adding rapid naming of digits and letters to this
version, and reporting scores on both symbolic and non-symbolic rapid
naming at this level.
Uses of the CTOPP-2The
CTOPP-2 has four principal uses: (1) to identify individuals who are
significantly below their peers in important phonological abilities, (2)
to determine strengths and weaknesses among developed phonological
processes, (3) to document individuals' progress in phonological
processing as a consequence of special intervention programs, and (4) to
serve as a measurement device in research studies investigating
- Elision measures the ability to remove phonological segments from spoken words to form other words.
- Blending Words measures the ability to synthesize sounds to form words.
- Sound Matching measures the ability to select words with the same initial and final sounds.
- Phoneme Isolation measures the ability to isolate individual sounds within words.
- Blending Nonwords measures the ability to synthesize sounds to form nonwords.
- Segmenting Nonwords measures the ability to segment nonwords into phonemes.
- Memory for Digits measures the ability to repeat numbers accurately.
- Nonword Repetition measures the ability to repeat nonwords accurately.
- Rapid Digit Naming measures the ability to rapidly name numbers.
- Rapid Letter Naming measures the ability to rapidly name letters.
- Rapid Color Naming measures the ability to rapidly name colors.
- Rapid Object Naming measures the ability to rapidly name objects.
Awareness Composite Score (PACS) comprises the standard scores of three
subtests-Elision, Blending Words, and Sound Matching-for 4 through 6
year olds, and Elision, Blending Words, and Phoneme Isolation for
7through 24 year olds. The PACS represents the examinee's awareness of
and access to the phonological structure of oral language.Phonological
Memory Composite Score (PMCS) comprises the standard scores of two
subtests -Memory for Digits and Nonword Repetition-for all individuals.
The PMCS represents the examinee's ability to code information
phonologically for temporary storage in working or short-term memory.
The Rapid Symbolic Naming Composite Score (RSNCS) comprises the standard
scores of two subtests-Rapid Digit Naming and Rapid Letter Naming-for
all individuals. The RSNCS measures the examinee's ability to include
efficient retrieval of phonological information from long-term or
permanent memory and execute a sequence of operations quickly and
repeatedly. Rapid Non-Symbolic Naming Composite Score (RNNCS) comprises
the standard scores of two subtests-Rapid Color Naming and Rapid Object
Naming and offers an alternative for young children, ages 4 through 6
year olds, not familiar with letters and numbers. The RNNCS measures the
examinee's ability to include efficient retrieval of phonological
information from long-term or permanent memory and executing a sequence
of operations quickly and repeatedly using objects and colors.The
Alternate Phonological Awareness Composite Score (APACS), an alternate
composite for measuring phonological awareness is available for 7
through 24 year olds. It is formed by combining the scaled scores from
Blending Nonwords and Segmenting Nonwords. The APACS measures the
examinee's phonological awareness exclusively with nonwords.
CTOPP-2 yields six types of normative scores: age equivalents, grade
equivalents, percentile ranks, subtest scaled scores, composite indexes,
and developmental scores. Percentile ranks are easily understood by
parents and others with whom the examiner might want to share the
results. Subtest scaled scores have a mean of 10 and a standard
deviation of 3. The composite score indexes have a mean of 100 and a
standard deviation of 15. Age and grade equivalents show the relative
standing of individuals' scores. A new Rasch-based developmental score
is now available for the non-speeded subtests.
of the CTOPP-2 subtests and composites was demonstrated by average
internal consistency coefficients presented for the subtests that exceed
.80 for all except Nonword Repetition with an average alpha of .77. The
average internal consistency coefficients for the composites were all
.85 or higher, a highly desirable level for reliability.Validity of the
CTOPP-2 subtests and composites was demonstrated by correlations to
measures directly related to the constructs measured by the CTOPP-2. The
averaged coefficients for the subtests range from .49 (moderate) to .84
(very large); those for the composites range from .65 (large) to .76
(very large) in magnitude.
COMPLETE CTOPP-2 KIT INCLUDES:
Examiner's Manual, 25 Examiner Record Booklets for ages 4 through 6, 25
Examiner Record Booklets for ages 7 through 24, Picture Book, and 2
CDs, all in a sturdy storage box. ( 2013)