Ages: 6 months through adulthoodTesting Time: 2 to 3 hoursAdministration: IndividualQualification Level: B
DASH-3 is a criterion-referenced measure of specific skill levels in
persons of all ages who have severe and/or multiple physical/sensory
disabilities, including persons with severe and profound intellectual
disability (mental retardation) and autism spectrum disorders. The
scales are also appropriate for individuals with mild to moderate
disabilities; those who have single disabling conditions (e.g.,
individuals with visual impairment or paraplegia), and children who are
functioning chronologically from birth to 6 years of age.
DASH-3 (1) provides an initial assessment for intervention planning, (2)
tracks individual progress for persons with severe and/or multiple
disabilities aged 6 months through adulthood, and (3) evaluates
individuals with other types of disabilities who require a detailed
assessment for intervention planning. At intake, the DASH-3 can be used
to estimate developmental level, analyze developmental strengths and
weaknesses, select skills most ready for targeted intervention, and
determine types of support needed by the individual (e.g., assistance
from others, visual supports, modified equipment). It can be used to
develop educational and therapeutic intervention plans, such as
Individual Education Plan (IEPs) and Individual Family Support Plans
(IFSPs). For comprehensive assessment, all five scales will be required;
however, the specific clinical or referral questions may require
administration of fewer scales (e.g., a speech pathologist may choose to
only administer the Language Scale).
Because the DASH3 items
identify specific behaviors and scoring criteria describe graduated
levels of support, it may be used to track progress with targeted
skills, so that timely changes may be made to the individuals
intervention program (e.g., promoting a greater level of independence
with a particular skill, targeting a new skill). Also, the DASH-3 may be
re-administered at different times (e.g., at one year intervals) to
track general developmental change. For individuals who move often, the
DASH-3 may transition with the individual, so that appropriate goals,
interventions and recent performance data continue without having to
wait for an assessment to be conducted or intervention priorities to be
The DASH3 has five scales that assess an individuals ability to demonstrate relevant skills in a developmental sequence.
Scale: This scale measures the ability to receive and respond to
environmental stimuli, as well as move reflexively and voluntarily. It
has four subscales: Reflexes, Gross Motor, Sensory, and Hand Skills.
Scale: This scale measures the ability to understand and use
communicative behaviors and purposeful language. The subscales are
nonsymbolic communication skills (N), expressive language (E), or
receptive language (R).
- SocialEmotional Scale: This scale
assesses awareness and understanding of self and of others, including
interactions with others and social skills.
- Activities of Daily
Living Scale: This scale measures an individuals level of
self-sufficiency and personal independence relative to daily living
skills. This scale has five subscales: Feeding, Dressing, Toileting,
Home Routines, and Travel and Safety.
- Academics Scale: This
scale measures the ability to learn and use information related to
concept formation, basic reading skills, and number skills. It has two
subscales: Preacademic Skills and Academic Skills.
examiner can complete each scale using any of three methods: (a) direct
observation by the examiner during evaluative sessions, (b) interview of
others who know the person well (e.g., parents, teachers), or (c)
independent completion of the scales by people who know the person well
with follow-up by the examiner. Data collected through direct
observation by the examiner are considered to be most valid, though the
other methods may be preferred when time is a factor or when comparing
the individuals skills across settings (e.g., home and school).In
addition to the five scales, the DASH-3 system includes three
accompanying forms to assist in developing intervention priorities and
strategies and track progress.
- Cumulative Summary Sheet
Scores from up to three DASH-3 administrations can be recorded on
this sheet. This summary sheet allows the examiner to quickly compare
performance across each of the five scales, as well as to evaluate
progress over time. This form also provides opportunity to estimate the
individuals overall developmental age level through by averaging the
five scale scores.
- Intervention Planning Worksheet
This form provides a basis for identifying skills most appropriate
for intervention for up to three administrations of the DASH-3. It
allows for easy identification of skills that could not be determined
due to task resistance, skills performed independently, and skills that
are considered priorities for intervention.
- Comprehensive Program Record
This form is used to document the individuals ongoing progress in
achieving targeted skills through recording of performance level data
across weeks. This form provides the basis for making timely decisions
regarding intervention for each targeted skill (e.g., changes regarding
instructional strategies, adaptive supports).
COMPLETE DASH-3 KIT INCLUDES:
Examiners Manual, 25 Comprehensive Program Record Forms, 25
Intervention Planning Worksheets, 25 Cumulative Summary Sheets, 10
Academics Scales, 10 Activities of Daily Living Scales, 10 Language
Scales, 10 Sensory-Motor Scales, and 10 Social-Emotional Scales.