Ages: Birth through 5 years
Testing Time: 4560 Minutes
PDMS-2 is an early childhood motor development program that provides
(in one package) both in-depth assessment and training or remediation of
gross and fine motor skills. The assessment is composed of six subtests
that measure interrelated motor abilities that develop early in life.
It is designed to assess the motor skills of children from birth through
5 years of age.
Reliability and validity have been determined
empirically. The normative sample consisted of 2,003 persons residing in
46 states. The PDMS-2 can be used by occupational therapists, physical
therapists, diagnosticians, early intervention specialists, adapted
physical education teachers, psychologists, and others who are
interested in examining the motor abilities of young children.
This 8-item subtest measures a child's ability to automatically react
to environmental events. Because reflexes typically become integrated by
the time a child is 12 months old, this subtest is only given to
children birth through 11 months.
This 30-item subtest measures a child's ability to sustain control of
his or her body within its center of gravity and retain equilibrium.
This 89-item subtest measures a child's ability to move from one place
to another. The actions measured include crawling, walking, running,
hopping, and jumping forward.
- Object Manipulation:
This 24-item subtest measures a child's ability to manipulate balls.
Examples of the actions measured include catching, throwing, and
kicking. Because these skills are not apparent until a child has reached
the age of 11 months, this subtest is only given to children ages 12
months and older.
- Grasping: This 26-item
subtest measures a child's ability to use his or her hands. It begins
with the ability to hold an object with one hand and progresses up to
actions involving the controlled use of the fingers of both hands.
- Visual-Motor Integration:
This 72-item subtest measures a child's ability to use his or her
visual perceptual skills to perform complex eye-hand coordination tasks
such as reaching and grasping for an object, building with blocks, and
Fine Motor Quotient:
This composite is a combination of the results of the subtests that
measure the use of the small muscle systems: Grasping (all ages),
Visual-Motor Integration (all ages).
Gross Motor Quotient: This composite is a combination of the results of the subtests that measure the use of the large muscle systems:
- Reflexes (birth-11 months only)
- Stationary (all ages)
- Locomotion (all ages)
- Object Manipulation (12 months and older)
Total Motor Quotient:
This composite is formed by a combination of the results of the gross
and fine motor subtests. Because of this, it is the best estimate of
overall motor abilities.
Psychometrically, the second edition of the PDMS has improved in the following ways:
- All of the new normative data were collected in the Winter of 1997 and the Spring of 1998.
Characteristics of the normative sample relative to geography, gender,
race, and other critical variables are the same as those reported in the
Statistical Abstract of the United States (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1997) and are therefore representative of the current U.S. population.
- The normative information has been stratified by age.
- Studies showing the absence of gender and racial bias have been added.
Reliability coefficients were computed for subgroups of the normative
sample (e.g., individuals with motor disabilities, African Americans,
Hispanic Americans, females, and males) as well as for the entire
- New validity studies have been conducted;
special attention has been devoted to showing that the test is valid for
a wide variety of subgroups as well as for the general population.
Each item was evaluated using both conventional item analyses to choose
good" statistical items and the new differential item functioning
analyses to find biased items.
The second edition of the PDMS has also improved or added the following user-friendly components:
The new Profile/Summary Forms enable the examiner to record the child's
PDMS-2 scores and graphically display the child's performance in two
formats. First, the examiner records the child's name and calculates his
or her age. Second, the PDMS-2 raw scores, percentiles, age
equivalents, and standard scores for subtests and composites are
recorded. Third, PDMS-2 standard scores for the subtests and composites
can be plotted on the Profile section to get a gross estimate of the
child's strengths and weaknesses. Finally, each item on which the child
met the criterion for mastery during testing is marked on the Profile of
Item Mastery section. This enables the examiner to compare the child's
performance on the items he or she has mastered with that of the
- The new Examiner Record Booklets contain
all of the items to be given to the child. Booklets contain abbreviated
instructions for administering items once the examiner is thoroughly
familiar with the more detailed instructions found in the Illustrated
Guide for Administering and Scoring the PDMS-2 Items. The booklets
contain clearly marked entry points to be used to locate the beginning
item for each subtest.
- descriptions of every item in the
PDMS-2. The items are referenced by number within each subtest and each
item description includes: (a) the age at which 50% of the children in
the normative sample have mastered the item, (b) the position the child
should be in when the item is administered, (c) the stimulus (if needed)
for presenting the item, (d) the procedure used to test the item, (e)
the criterion used to score the item, and (f) the illustration of a
child performing the item.
- The Peabody Motor Activities Program
(P-MAP) is the instruction/treatment program for the PDMS-2. It
contains units organized developmentally by skill area. After a child's
motor skills have been assessed and the examiner has completed all
sections of the Profile/ Summary Form, the examiner selects units from
the P-MAP to use to facilitate the child's development in specific skill
- The new Peabody Motor Development Chart provides the
examiner with a convenient reference for the motor skills measured by
the PDMS-2 and the ages at which 50% of the normative sample performed
the skill. Each of the subtests is represented along with numerous
illustrations of children demonstrating the behaviors described in the
- PC, Mac, and iPadcompatible PDMS-2 Online Scoring and Report System
(includes 5 licenses) reduces scoring and reporting time and errors by
(a) calculating basals and ceilings on item-level data; (b) converting
PDMS2 item scores or subtest raw scores into standard scores,
percentile ranks, and age equivalents; (c) generating composite
quotients; (d) comparing PDMS2 subtest and composite performance to
identify significant intra-individual differences; and (e) providing a
printed report of the student's identifying information and PDMS2
performance, including short-term and long-term treatment goals and
Complete PDMS-2 Kit includes: Examiner's Manual, 25 Profile/Summary Forms, 25 Examiner Record Booklets, Guide to Item Administration, Peabody
Motor Activities Program, Black & White 38x26 Peabody Motor
Development Chart, 25 Black & White 8.5x11 Peabody Motor Development
Parent Charts, and PDMS-2 Manipulatives, all in a sturdy storage box.
(2000) Enlarged Image