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TOSREC Grade 1: Test of Silent Reading Efficiency and Comprehension

TOSREC Grade 1: Test of Silent Reading Efficiency and Comprehension | Special Education

TOSREC Grade 1: Test of Silent Reading Efficiency and Comprehension

  • Publisher: Pro-Ed Inc
  • Grade Level: All
  • Item #: 13440

Price: $320.00   SRP: $320.00


Ages: Grade 1
Testing Time: 3 minutes
Administration: Individual or group

Click here to download TOSREC pricing chart.

The Test of Silent Reading Efficiency and Comprehension (TOSREC)
is a brief, group- or individually administered test of reading that
assesses silent reading of connected text for comprehension. The test
can be used for screening and progress monitoring, with multiple forms
available at each grade level to facilitate progress monitoring. The
test can also be used by clinicians and researchers as a brief test of
reading comprehension.

Description of the TOSREC

The TOSREC has four test forms. It was normed on a nationally-representative sample of 3,523 individuals.

The TOSREC measures silent reading efficiency (i.e., speed and
accuracy) and comprehension. Respondents are given 3 minutes to read
and verify the truthfulness of as many sentences as possible.

each grade level, Form A was normed in the fall, Form B in the winter,
and Form C in the spring. This provides norms specific to the time in
the school year the TOSREC is administered. An Optional Form O is
available for use anytime throughout the year. The TOSREC provides raw
scores, indexes (a type of standard score), and percentiles. It can be
administered by classroom teachers, reading coaches, special education
teachers, school psychologists, speech and language therapists, and
other professionals who have received some training in standardized test
administration. The test can be group-administered to a classroom or
other groupings of students or adults, and it can also be administered

The TOSREC provides five advantages over oral reading
fluency tests for screening and progress monitoring because of its
format of reading connected text silently for comprehension.

  1. Group administration is possible, which dramatically improves
    efficiency and cost effectiveness. This savings in efficiency and cost
    effectiveness is particularly important for school-wide screening and
    progress monitoring.
  2. The kind of reading that is assessed by the TOSREC has greater
    ecological validity than do oral reading fluency tasks. The ultimate
    goal of reading instruction is to help students read silently and
    efficiently for comprehension. Important differences exist between
    silent reading and oral reading. For example, reading rate is
    substantially slower for oral reading than for silent reading.
    Vocalization also requires additional effort and provides a source of
    aural input that must be processed concurrently with reading. This
    occupies working memory that otherwise could be devoted to
  3. Comprehension is assessed explicitly and affects
    scoring directly. Although some oral reading fluency tasks involve
    asking comprehension questions to encourage readers to read for
    comprehension as opposed to merely call out the words, comprehension
    performance does not impact scoring directly. Performance on oral
    reading fluency tests usually is reported as words read correctly per
    minute, with no adjustment depending on whether or not comprehension
    questions are answered correctly. For the TOSREC, failure to correctly
    verify the meaning of a sentence impacts scoring directly.
  4. Nationally representative norms are available. Although empirically
    established benchmarks are available for some oral reading fluency
    tasks, nationally representative standard scores and percentiles,
    collected for a standardized set of passages, typically are not
    available. The TOSREC provides both standard scores and percentiles
    along with standardized directions and forms, thereby making it possible
    to compare an individual's performance on the TOSREC to national norms.
  5. Embarrassment on the part of poor readers is avoided. In practice,
    some poor readers, especially older poor readers or English language
    learners, are embarrassed at having to read aloud in the presence of an
    examiner to the point that their performance is affected and the testing
    situation is uncomfortable. The TOSREC avoids the embarrassment
    experienced by some respondents associated with reading aloud.

Aspects of Reading Measured by the TOSREC

The TOSREC measures the efficiency with which connected text can be
read silently for comprehension. As such, it provides a snapshot of an
individual's ability to perform the end product of actually
comprehending print, as opposed to measuring only a single component of
reading such as word-level decoding or fluent word recognition. The
TOSREC requires fluent recognition of printed words, ability to process
grade-level appropriate sentence structure, knowledge of
grade-level-appropriate vocabulary, adequate working memory capacity to
process realistic sentences, the ability to make appropriate inferences,
and possession of relevant background knowledge.

Uses of the TOSREC

The TOSREC was designed for
multiple purposes including efficient and cost-effective (a) screening
for the identification of poor readers, (b) group progress monitoring of
all readers, and (c) assessment by clinicians and researchers of silent
reading of connected text for comprehension.

EACH COMPLETE TOSREC KIT INCLUDES: Examiners Manual with Scoring Keys CD, 25 Profile Record Forms, and 25 each Student Response Booklets Form A, Form B, Form C, and Form O, all in a sturdy storage box. 2010